Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Celebrity Lifestyle Is Not What Everyone Portrays It...

The celebrity lifestyle is not what everyone portrays it to be. 9 times out of 10 most celebrities wish they could live the average middle class life. Behind the scenes, celebrities suffer from multiple things that affect the lives of their families and themselves. The life of a celebrity can bring fame, money, and lots of attention, but has the downfall of addiction, pain, high standards, and no privacy. Lately, people have been craving the lifestyle of a celebrity because they only see the exciting component of a celebrities life. If people could put themselves in a position of a celebrity, I think most people would change their mind. The cons in a celebrities life are much bigger than people think. Addiction is a problem that many face in the world today. Many people think of addiction as food or drugs but I believe it is much bigger than that. Celebrities can become addicted to beauty, drugs, money, and unhealthy food. Addiction means there is something that comforts you from th e outside world. They face many problems and in most situations the solution becomes addiction. The most common celebrity addiction is drugs. Drug addiction has killed many celebrities throughout the past years. They run to drugs because they are overwhelmed with stress or they feel like their world is falling apart. I can relate to celebrities because I have an addiction to music. I am addicted to music because it makes me feel better no matter what my situation is. Music is my mind-alteringShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1621 Words   |  7 Pagesas a token of their past, present, and future endeavors. Each character is inevitably distinct in their relationship to the superficial representation that photographs produce. Myrtle’s infatuation with celebrities and their lifestyle leaves her gaping at the thought of living a luxurious lifestyle herself. Jordan is portrayed in her magazine photographs as a simple athlete without a care or concern in the w orld but as the novel goes on, Nick discovers that there is more depth than her photos depictRead MoreThe Nihilism Of African Americans1117 Words   |  5 Pagestheir lives. The nihilism does not depict every black person’s life because not all black people struggle. Lawlessness is described by West that laws and justice are not always seen in the black communities. (399). West notes that market morality portrays the struggle of African Americans (400). West says market morality governs the portrayal of black lives on television (399). West argues that Black America is completely engrossed with the media. The market morality and nihilism are a disease inRead MoreThe Influence of Celebrities Essay1128 Words   |  5 PagesHave you ever wondered what influences us to behave the way we do? Look a certain way? Or even looked for an explanation to what causes us to apply a certain perspective regarding personal and controversial issues? One of the answers to these questions may revolve around the influence we absorb from celebrities. A definitive term for celebrity is an iconic figure to a category or group who has achieved success in one or multiple aspects of their lives. As a result, these individuals have drawn inRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Tv991 Words   |  4 Pagesrepresents the idealistic and notional ideas as to what reality should be. Producer manipulation distorts any sense of reality that is present in reality TV shows. Many reality TV stars are celebrities who often create false impressions of their lifestyles in order to appeal to their intended audience and build their brand. Shows like Keeping Up With the Kardashians are a prime example of the effects that reality TV shows have on building a brand for celebrities. As a result of the show the Kardashians haveRead MoreEssay on Celebrity Bad Influence1440 Words   |  6 PagesCan you imagine what our society would be like without celebrities? Celebrities are a big factor that help shape today’s world. We turn on the television, read articles on the internet, books, and even magazines which inform us what a celebrity was wearing when they walked the red carpet. The simple fact is that celebrities are highly profiled in the media. We follow their everyday life, struggles, and moments of sadness they may encounter. Let’s face it, the information w e discover about theseRead MoreCelebrities Extravagant Spending Styles1297 Words   |  5 Pagesterm Celebrity, as everyone knows, is commonly associated with the word â€Å"wealth†; furthermore with the words fame and fortune. Celebrities are individuals with prominent profiles and are a part of the media day-to-day. Famous people, from various careers, possess a great deal of money and are the most recognizable and popular to the public. Many people gain celebrity through their successful careers in their specific field, likewise from the attention of the media through their lives. Celebrity isRead MoreEssay on The Media Effects American Culture1249 Words   |  5 Pagesmasses. These include advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet† (Sebastian). The media introduces many new things to the public, both positive and negative. The media harms the American culture by creating these celebrity idols, the glorification of violence, sex, an d drug and alcohol abuse. The media positively affects the American culture by the quick and easy flow of useful information and education, its major role in developments like fight against racism, fightRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald825 Words   |  4 Pagesdevelops an insight into the elite lifestyles of those who reside in West Egg and later decides for himself that he soon will be lost in the hectic lives of those around him due to the strong ideas of money and pleasure being the only two things that brought excitement into the lives of the upper class as where Nick was someone who had strong morals and a purpose more than getting drunk and having affairs with women who wouldn’t matter then next morning. Fitzgerald portrays Nick Carroway (the author) asRead MoreMyth of Money and Success Essay1254 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Joshua Nooe Professor Hart RWS 200 20 October 2011 The Myth of Money and Success The American Dream is different for everyone, though it is most commonly associated with success, freedom, and happiness. The concept of the American Dream seems to have dwindled from where it was in the past few generations. It has gone from success, freedom, and happiness to having lots of money and the nicest possessions. In today’s society, we all hope and strive for this dream, but how many actuallyRead MoreCelebrities and Privacy1609 Words   |  7 PagesScope People in the public eye consists of politicians, athletes, celebrities and other individuals who are famous. For our presentation we will be concentrating on celebrities and whether they should expect their privacy to be respected by the media. Media comes in various forms, with the more common ones being newspapers, tabloids, radio, paparazzi, internet, social media and many more. A conflict of rights? Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights stated that every person

The Man Who Changed Our World - 3426 Words

THE MAN WHO CHANGED OUR WORLD When Muhammad was visited by the Archangel Gabriel in 610 C.E., this event would set in motion an idea which would grow to have a dominating affect on nearly one-third of the world s future population, affecting how they live, marry, eat, and their proclivity for war. It is very rare that a single individual would put forth an idea so foundational to the very life of the world that grew in its and his wake, and an idea whose impact would be felt in world affairs for centuries to follow. Arguably, it has happened only once before, and that was 600 years before the time of Muhammad, which is the time of the preachings of a man called Jesus Christ. Muhammad was born around 570 C.E. His father died before†¦show more content†¦Shortly after Muhammad s death, the messages given to him by the angel, which his followers accepted to be the words of God, were written down in a book called the Qur an. By the time of Muhammad s death, Islam had become the primary religion of most of the Arabian Peninsula (Gordon 16). But it s real influence, and his phenomenal legacy, was just beginning. While many believe Islam initially spread because it was forced on those who lost the many wars of conquest, others argue that the conquered people willingly accepted what they believed were the benefits of worshiping a stronger, more victorious God. Islam also spread peacefully into areas where local rulers made alliances with caliphs, the chief Muslim civil and religious rulers, who, rather than his adopted son, are regarded as the successors of Muhammad (Wilkins 22). All of Muhammad s natural sons are believed to have died in early childhood. Some followers thought his adopted son should be the natural leader of Islam upon the death of Muhammad, but that leadership was assumed by the caliphs with the strongest armies. Some might see this as an omen for this religion s famous thirst for war. Islam spread rapidly after Muhammad s death, by both conquest as well as the conversion of pagans who had no strong religious views (Gordon 14). The spread of Islam was madeShow MoreRelatedTime Is Money, Time Or Labors1230 Words   |  5 PagesIt’s in our nature to save whether it is money, time or labors. It has been continuing pattern for generation after generation, and our generation is no exception. It does not matter how big or small the company is its always innovating new ways to reduce the cost to produce goods, Total Cost Minimization. In fact, cost minimization has been the motivation behind the way our world is today and the things we have. Imagine if the Wright Brothers never invented the airplane we would still be crossingRead MoreThe World Of World War II1496 Words   |  6 PagesWorld War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It led to millions of deaths, and devastation across the world. Nazi Germany took control of many European countries, and Japan declared war on the United States. American soldiers were deployed and took action to protect the nation. The United States was in a constant limbo between being safe, and having war on its doorstep. Life for citizens, in the United States and other countries, was affected tremendously by the war, and has shapedRead MoreAnalysis Of `` Hawthorne s `` Young Goodman Brown ``927 Words   |  4 Pagesnot come back entirely the same. War changes one’s perception about reality and interferes with daily living, relationships, and how one sees the world. Goodman Brown in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† is a symbol for our soldiers and their loss of innocence during their journey from war. Goodman Brown is a good and confident man, much like our soldiers are, but are they are also naà ¯ve. Goodman has only been married but three months, and yet he must leave his newlywed to embark on a questRead MoreSusan Bordo1355 Words   |  6 PagesSusan Bordo an author who writes about how the American culture has always shown and used womens bodies throughout our history and to most is considered completely normal. In the print â€Å"Beauty Rediscovers the Male Body† Bordo states â€Å"naked female body became an object of mainstream consumption†(Bordo 168). She explains that the female body was completely normal for people to look at while on the other hand showing a naked male body was considered a taboo that most people were afraid to break. OverRead MoreThe Breakfast Of Champions By Ray Bradbury1435 Words   |  6 Pagesjournal, I had just finished Joseph Heller’s Catch-22. Now, I started and finished Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 and also start ed Kurt Vonnegut’s Breakfast of Champions. There are still sixty-six pages remaining in the novel. Fahrenheit 451 is about a man named Guy Montag living in a future in which books are outlawed. Guy is a fireman whose job it is to burn all remaining books currently located in his city. However, when Guy meets a strange girl living outside of his apartment, he becomes intriguedRead MoreAnalysis of Man and the Stream of Time836 Words   |  4 PagesRachel Carson’s Man and the Stream of time possesses enlightening perspectives of nature that have been marinating in her mind for ten years. Her writing reflects upon the effects that man has on nature and the role he plays in the ever changing environment. Her sole observation is that it is man’s nature to want to conquer the world, but nature is not one to be conquered. The writer affirms that nature is an entity that must be dignified, Like English poet Francis Thompson said, â€Å"Thou canst notRead MoreAnalysis O f Champion Of The World By Maya Angelou849 Words   |  4 Pagesmajority of people. There are also some individuals who have redefined the expectations when it comes to certain sports. For instance, Babe Ruth redefined the way people think about baseball, or Michael Jordan completely changing the game of basketball. But Joe Louis and Venus and Serena Williams have changed their games in a way no one could have imagined. Although â€Å"Champion of the World† by Maya Angelou and â€Å"Woman Who Hit Very Hard and How They’ve Changed Tennis† by Michael Kimmelman are different, theyRead MoreHow Charles Darwin Changed the World Forever1409 Words   |  6 PagesThere is one man in history who changed everything from the way we see everyday events in the world, and that man is Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin was a scientist who discovered the origin of life through a study on the Galapagos Islands. Before Darwin’s discovery, the world was looked upon as Godâ⠂¬â„¢s playground where everything happened because of him. For example, if something bad happened to someone’s family like a disease it would be because they have angered God. Darwin lived during the dawnRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Sunday By Ian Mcewan1353 Words   |  6 Pagesencounters a man who, in many ways, is his polar opposite: Baxter. Henry is a well educated, successful doctor while Baxter is less well-off and suffering from Huntington s Disease. Despite this, in the climax of the novel it is Baxter, and not the more well educated Perowne, who is found to be more susceptible to the influence of literary art. Through the contrast of these two seemingly dissimilar characters, one who seems as though he should not be appreciative of it but is, and another who seems asRead MoreNotes On Genesis And The Days Of Creation Begin With Sunset ``1193 Words   |  5 PagesGenesis 1:1-11, are very important scriptures that demand that we take a look back at our history w hen we begin to discuss human origin, relationships and civilization. It is here that we find answers to what has been a debate for many. Author, Lim (2013) states that, â€Å"In Genesis the days of creation begin with sunset because God is not bound by and does not emanate from natural forces such as the sun†. This is shown true in the verses simply explaining the creation of everything including the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My First Day Of School - 1577 Words

It’s the first day of school for me and my first class of 1st graders. In walks a little girl, she is wearing a beautiful blue head scarf. Her name is Berra. While talking to her parents before her first day of school, I know she is from Istanbul, Turkey. She moved to the United States when her father received a job as an architect. It was important for me to know this will be her first year in school. Children in Turkey begin to receive a free education when they 6 years old. This differs from the U.S. because children can begin school at age 5. The Turkish tradition and culture is one with great influence from the surrounding countries. It is located in Western Asia between Europe. Istanbul is located between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with a square footage of 2,063 miles. The city holds the country’s economic, cultural and historical heart. Not every woman or girl wears a head scarf but it is up to them and their religion whether they choose to wear it or not. It is important for me to know the most I can about my students culture and her way of life so I can help set straight any common misconception my young students may have. I also want to give every one of my students the best education possible. I can only teach my children if I know who they are. I need to know what is important to each of my students and what interests them. This means doing my research on where my student is from and discoveringShow MoreRelatedMy First Day At School837 Words   |  4 Pageshard push on my side. Slowly I opened my eyes. I just see the sun’s rays creep through my windows and flash me right in my eyes. Slowly I got used to the light. I finally got up and could open my eyes fully. I hear my mom yell get up it’s your first day of school. I Got up took a shower, got dressed, ate my breakfast, and I was out the door on my way to school. I live in Ohio where it usually rains a lot and today it was a very sunny beautiful day. I got to school. It was my first day of middle schoolRead MoreMy First Day Of School838 Words   |  4 PagesIt was sunny Monday morning, soon to be my first day of school. I remember having a mild anxiety. I found myself swept away by fear as I approach the main entrance. The thought of leaving my home to acquire education seemed like nonsense for my 4 years old self. Since it was my first day of school my parents had to stay with me to make me comfortable. Being nervous, I passed through the main entrance. I saw a couple of kids playing with their small trucks in the playground and others were runningRead MoreMy First Day Of School Essay1024 Words   |  5 PagesIn elementary school, I had two best-loved teachers. My kindergarten teacher, Dr. Barron had the kindest heart. My first day of school, I scarcely remember her greeting each student with a friendly smile. That first day we learned her class song. â€Å"Dr. Barron’s bunnies come to school every day, school every d ay, school every day†. Throughout the remaining years in elementary school, I would visit her class for a friendly conversation. My second favorite teacher in elementary school was Mrs. JacobsonRead MoreMy First Day Of School Essay966 Words   |  4 PagesThe first day of school is nerve-wracking for most people, for me, the first day was especially terrifying. The first day of a college class is probably more crazy than all others. My mom and younger sister, Michaela, were busy taking pictures as I attempted to run out of the door. After being homeschooled for the last six years, I knew it would be a much different experience. I had been in my room alone doing school; I was content with where I was. The morning of the first day of class, I was soRead MoreMy First Day Of School1607 Words   |  7 PagesWhen I woke up this morning, I was very nervous my first day of school, usually, I get taught at home so I don’t understand much, going to this public school is going t o put a new perspective in my life. When I open my little wooden door with my tinny bunnys hands, I walked to the bus in the background, I heard my mom and dad and little sister saying, â€Å"good luck on your first day.† I just gave a little wave back and blew a kiss. When I looked around I felt alone, the birds chirping with suchRead MoreMy First Day Of School1682 Words   |  7 Pagesyour day off with a two mile walk in the heat. Finally, you get to the small, one room schoolhouse, and it has no air conditioning. Everyone around you is so much taller than you, meaning they are probably a lot older than you as well. The teacher looks at you and tells you to take a seat, but all you want to do is turn around and be anywhere else but there. Seems a little scary, right? Well this is how my grandma’s first day of school went. This is nothing like a typical first day of school for kidsRead MoreMy First Day Of School Essay1544 Words   |  7 PagesWe met during our second last year of high school. Back then, I had transferred to Richmond High from my old school, Churchill, to study in the IB program they offered. I was quite looking forward to it, actually. I felt that the past years of my life had been wasted on social life and boys who just disappointed me at the end. Moving to a new school was a way to break free, to start anew and focus on something different for a change. Studies. That’s right, I was going to focus on studies. PlusRead MoreMy First Day At School774 Words   |  4 Pages My time at Life School was very eventful, and I will remember them for the rest of my life. My first day at life school was very eventful though i made a name for myself. I started at Life School Lancaster in the third grade, and i came about a month after school started because i transferred from a different school. I got into trouble and they gave me a tally which is just something to show you did something they didnt like. At first i thought i was getting kicked out, but through time i learnedRead MoreMy First Day At School733 Words   |  3 Pagesbecause it was my first day of school. First I went to take a shower; I thought, â€Å"What I would do in school today, who will be my teachers. Then I walked to the bus stop people looked at me like Im not from this planet. I sat on a tree trunk waiting for the bus. The bus arrived after 15 minutes, I aboard the bus. The driver was a woman she was wearing a black shirt and brown pants. She told me â€Å" Do you have the paper that sh ows that you have permission to go to school in a school bus† I stared atRead MoreMy First Day Of School1280 Words   |  6 PagesHigh school first day drama My first day of highschool changed my identity through new environments new teachers new friends and new standards. On the first day of school I woke up to my blaring alarm â€Å"beep beep beep beep†. After I hit the snooze button it was 6:00 and realized the summer was over and new school had started. I had not worried much about this day but today was different. I had the stomach bug I felt as though I was going to throw up. The sun was just waking up throwing vibrant colors

Video Games Should Not Be Classified - 989 Words

Video games should not be classified as â€Å"bad† and if someone classifies them that way then hopefully they have some kind of different outlook after reading this. Where video games get this negative outlook is from the inglorious bastard genre of the â€Å"action† or first person shooter, when in reality, that’s one genre of 10’s if not 100’s of others that are established. Video games do in fact have beneficial attributes even though people think of them as addictive brainwashing mechanisms, and there are means to make video games a learning technique. Six experts on video games collaborated, and this is what they had to say. Daphne Bavelier and Shawn Green stated how video games have beneficial factors to them. They focused their attention on the action genre by saying that, Indeed, playing this type of game results in a wide range of behavioral benefits, including enhancements in low-level vision, visual attention, speed of processing and statistical inference, among others (Bavelier, Green, 2011). Action games deliver high intensity, faced paced decision making and processing; and with this exposure, players begin to harness their skills to judge situations quickly and act upon them. Each game differs from one another even in the same genre, and the ability for a gamer to not only hone in on fast processing and decision skills to support a pleasurable outcome, but it also affects their motor skills. Which is what brought Doug Han to say that, Depending on the type ofShow MoreRelatedDo Violent Video Games Cause People?926 Words   |  4 PagesDo violent video games cause people to act out violently? Some people argue that video games have nothing to do with real life actions of people. While opponents think that video games teach and train people to act out those actions seen on the video games. While video games may cause people to act out violently, there is no reason to ban them however; there should be regulations on the age and content of the video games. The first major video game system was put into production I 1972 by MagnavoxRead MoreThe Importance Of Violent Video Games932 Words   |  4 PagesWhile video games are fun for a lot of people, violent video games have proven to lead to more than just high scores and a source of entertainment. Violent video games need to be limited to our maturing youth. First, violent video games are one of the biggest and increasing outlets for providing our youth with deranged thoughts and aggressive impulsions. Second, the use of violent video games is very prevalent amongst soldiers in the U.S. Army being ordered to play these games to keep them in a warriorRead MoreJakob Neilsons 2nd Heuristic1281 Words   |  6 PagesJakob Neilson’s 2nd Heuristic The Jakob Nielson’s 2nd heuristic is the match between system and the real world. The system should speak the user’s language, with words, phrases, and concepts for users, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order (Nielson, 1995). The paper we will introduce three interactive items correlating between the system and the real world. Applying Neilson’s 2nd heuristic with the three interactiveRead MoreImpact of Media on the People of Pakistan1347 Words   |  6 Pageslate 20th Century, mass media could be classified into eight mass media industries: books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the internet. With the explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the question of what forms of media should be classified as mass media has become more prominent. For example, it is controversial whether to include cell pho nes, video games and computer games (such as MMORPGs) in the definition. InRead MoreShould We Blame Video Games For Violence1295 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Should We Blame Video Games for Violence† Video games; a pastime for many people across the world, a form of entertainment, and, of course, a way to destress yourself from the outside world. Video games have been around since October 18, 1958 and have been evolving rapidly through the years. â€Å" More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play â€Å"Tennis for Two,† an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably aRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Video Games1154 Words   |  5 PagesAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and Video games (Final review) This evaluation review is to determine the focus on what qualifies all referenced website or group of authors to write about ADHD. Studies provide validity to the data identifies as a reoccurrence when using devices. It sustains and controls the focus of a child with ADHD attention to be known as an addition. Studies express that video games and other devices such as TV can cause children with ADHD to have an additionRead MoreWhat Makes A Video Game Addictive?1537 Words   |  7 Pages Video Game Addiction Caymon Mosquera Leslie Henderson Intro to Mass Communication 1307.87 4/17/2016 â€Æ' What makes a video game addictive? As with any addiction video games are a multi-faceted issue. For starters, video games are made to be addictive. Not â€Å"addictive† in the clinical way, but designers are always looking for ways to make their games more interesting and increase the amount of time people will spend playing them. Consequently, games are designed to be difficult enough to be trulyRead MoreDo Violent Video Games Doom Young Players? Essay1352 Words   |  6 Pagesthe ages of 6 and 16 have gravitated towards video games. As technology has progressed, developers have greatly improved the graphics of video games. As a result, very real portrayals of human beings can be created. However, in many cases, game makers take advantage of this and incorporate realistic violence in the games. Although games such as these are rated for mature players, children have been able to obtain and play these violent types of video games. Due to this trend, many psychologists andRead MoreThe Final Version Of The Track 1469 Words   |  6 Pagesaggressive and fast paced score, â€Å"something with the adrenaline of soaring through the skies†. But again he felt that too fell flat due to the feeling of emotional manipulation. Finally he just decided to compose an abstract idea of what he felt it should be and came up with the final version of the track (Journey). The final version of the track indeed does heighten the player’s emotions of freedom, excitement, and elevation. â€Å"Sound design and music are both enormously effective at eliciting affectiveRead MoreComputer Games : Video Games1229 Words   |  5 PagesComputer Games Personal computer games also known as the computer games demonstrate the video games which are played on a personal computer rather than an arcade machine or a video game console. The most defining features of these games include a higher degree of user control of the gaming software and hardware, absence of central controlling ability. Another most defining characteristic of the games is the increased capacity for input to the pc, processing and consequently the output. The people

The Impact of Sms free essay sample

IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2005 THE IMPACT OF SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS) LANGUAGE ON LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY OF LEARNERS AND THE SMS DICTIONARIES: A CHALLENGE FOR EDUCATORS AND LEXICOGRAPHERS Mampa Lorna Mphahlele Department of Applied Languages, Tshwane University of Technology, Soshanguve Campus, Pretoria Kwena Mashamaite Sesotho sa Leboa Lexicography Unit, University of Limpopo, Polokwane ABSTRACT The language is achieving new colours and tones in the world in which we live. Technology has become the buzzword in communication circles. The requirements in language versatility, which are universally understood, are overcome by the new short message service (SMS) language that is emerging rapidly. The cellphones that are conveniently used for social communication and in business transactions are invaluably helpful but can equally be extremely detrimental to the learning and development process of learners of other languages especially foreign language learning. The short message service (SMS) language that is used by cellphone users and the advertising industry has also been discovered to be abundantly used by the learners in their written work. This discovery has prompted one to investigate the impact of this prevalent use, for it is believed that the SMS language is influencing the language proficiency of learners in a negative way. The purpose of this paper is to explicate how the SMS language affects the language proficiency of learners, and the role dictionaries can play in the improvement of learners’ language proficiency. KEYWORDS Language, Technology, Cellphone, Short Message Service (Sms), Sms Language, Language Proficiency, Communication, Dictionary, Lexicographers, Learners, Educators, Advertising, Metalexicography 1. INTRODUCTION Technology plays a very important role in communication today. The cellphone is one of the most effective, convenient and widely used technological instruments used for communication globally. It uses a communication facility known as the short message service (SMS) which is relatively cheaper both in terms of time and money spent during the process of communication. One uses fewer and shorter words compared to direct communication over the cellphone. Notwithstanding the myriad benefits provided by the SMS in enhancing communication and improving global business generally, the SMS has been found to be of detrimental effect on the language proficiency of learners. Learners use it as if it is an officially accepted and standard language. They mix it with the standard language they learn at school, especially the English language and consequently commit numerous errors ranging from incorrect spelling to ungrammatical sentence constructions. The aim of this paper is firstly, to show how the SMS influences the learners’ English language proficiency. Secondly, to highlight the challenge the SMS language is posing to both educators in their 161 ISBN: 972-8939-02-7  © 2005 IADIS endeavour to help learners master the English language, and the lexicographers, of the need to develop an SMS dictionary. Evidence of the influence of the SMS language on learners’ language proficiency especially in English is realised in the learners’ official written work such as tests, assignments and reports. The use of this SMS language affects the learners’ performance since it does not observe grammatical and syntactic rules of a standard English language. It is neither an official nor a standard language. An example from a test script of a tertiary learner registered for a module in Communication reads: †if we do get the money how shud it be used? † The learner used ‘SHUD’ instead of ‘SHOULD’. The pronunciation of these two words is the same, and it is advantageous to use the first spelling from an SMS message, because it saves space and time. It is even simpler to write because it is spelled like it is spoken. This simplified spelling would also affect words like ‘WOULD and COULD’. Nevertheless, the simplified spelling is not acceptable according to the English grammar rules. Ultimately the learner becomes a victim of the SMS language in the hands of the educators as he is punished for wrong spelling. 2. SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS) The Short Message Service (SMS) is a service that a cellphone service provider provides to his clients for ease of communication. Cellphone users can communicate with one another using symbols and or abbreviated form of words and sentences to save space, time and money. The following table resembles the SMS dictionary that Vodacom provides to its clients when one purchases a cellphone. Table 1. Vodacom SMS dictionary WORDS IN FULL As far as I remember Love Thanks Today Before Have a nice day see you SWYP At Tears in my eyes Sealed with a kiss Keep it simple, stupid Such a laugh At a moment Parents are watching Random act of kindness Please reply Second You’re on your own As soon as possible Hugs and kisses ABBREVIATIONS OR SMS LANGUAGE AFAIR LUV THNX 2day B4 HAND CU So what’s your problem? TIME SWAK KISS SAL ATM PAW RAK RSVP SEC YOYO ASAP HAK Some of the above SMS words are semantically confusing because of their dual meanings, that is, they have both the conventional meaning and the SMS meaning. This situation arises where the SMS word has the same spelling as that of the English or the Afrikaans word. For example, (a) Hand (English) – part of your body at the end of your arms (Collins Cobuild English Dictionary) (b) Hand (SMS ) – have a nice day (c) ATM (English) automated teller machine 162 IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2005 d) (e) (f) (g) (h) ATM (SMS) – at the moment Swak (Afrikaans) – weakness, weak (Pharos Bilingual Dictionary) Swak (SMS) – sealed with a kiss Rak (Afrikaans) – rack, shelf (Pharos Bilingual Dictionary) Rak (SMS) – random act of kindness More English and Afrikaans examples appear in the tables below. Some words like the SMS word ‘AFAIR’ meaning â€Å"as far as I remember† do not have the same spelling as the English word but may be mistaken for the misspelled English word ‘AFFAIR’ which means â€Å"an event or situation; a sexual relationship† thereby creating confusion of meaning. There are abbreviations from the SMS glossary which are acceptable English words and Afrikaans words, which are explained differently from the SMS glossary in the above Table. Such words can also confuse the learners. The actual meanings are as follows: English: The meanings will be provided from Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. [2002] Table 2. English meanings of the SMS words HAND TIME KISS ATM PAW YOYO -SMS: Have a nice day. the part of your body at the end of each arm that you use for picking up and holding things help -SMS: Tears in my eyes quality clock measures period -SMS: Keep it simple, stupid to touch someone with your lips because you love them or have sexual feeling for them SMS: At a moment automated teller machine Parents are watching the foot of some animals such as a cats, dogs, and bears informal ‘a person’s hand’ -SMS: You’re on your own a toy consisting of a round plastic or wooden object on the end of a str ing that you can make rise and fall by tying the string to your finger and moving your hand up and down Afrikaans English equivalents will be provided from Bosman et. al. (2003) Bilingual Dictionary. Table 3. Afrikaans – English equivalents from Bosman et. al. (2003) Bilingual dictionary HAK SWAK SAL RAK SMS: Hugs and kisses heel SMS: Sealed with a kiss weakness, weak SMS: Such a laugh shall SMS: Random act of kindness shelf rack Every cloud has a silver lining. The following are the abbreviations which are not tempered with. 163 ISBN: 972-8939-02-7  © 2005 IADIS Table 4. Abbreviations not tempered with. RSVP SEC ASAP ESP SMS: Please reply please reply -SMS: Second second SMS: As soon as possible as soon as possible SMS: Especially Especially Likewise, the frequently used SMS word â€Å"LUV† for â€Å"Love† which appears many times on the television screens especially during â€Å"phone-in† and â€Å"send your SMS† programmes confuses learners to the extent that they may believe that both spellings are correct. This kind of language ther efore hampers learners’ language proficiency, in particular, grammatical and spelling skills especially in English. For example, the following quotation was recorded from the programme ‘PLAY TV’ on SABC3 on Monday, 12 July 2003, at 15:30, in which viewers were asked to phone-in or SMS a greetings message for a prize. The SMS messages appeared on TV as supplementary information. The message read: â€Å"we luv u 2† The learners love watching the TV. They take the language used in the media as acceptable, official and standard especially that this language is being watched and used nationally, and in some cases internationally. Besides appearing on our national television screens, the SMS language is also used abundantly on cards and artifacts that are used as memorabilia for the celebration of popular days marking social events such as Mother’s Day, Father’s Day and Valentine’s Day. One such message reads: I LOVE MY MOM. The word ‘love’ is replaced with a symbol of a red heart. The SMS language has an influence even on the academics in the sense that they also use it when they write official documents such as circulars and memoranda. They regard it as easy and convenient to use as it saves time, space and it is less expensive to implement. The sad part of this practice is that learners read those circulars and believe that the language used is acceptable because it is also used by the educators. An example of such circulars from one tertiary institution reads: To: All lecturers From: HOD-Applied Languages Date: 13 October 2003 REMINDER SPEECH AND POSTER ELIMINATIONS WHEN? 5 OCTOBER 2003 TIME? 9:15-11:00 WHERE? LF119 C U THERE! __________________ MH DOLO (HOD) Educators should lead by example. How would an educator convince a learner that it is wrong to write c u there in a formal school context when such language is used by the head of a department of applied languages who is supposed to be the expert in the field? 164 IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2005 3. ADVERTISING Erasmus-Kritzinger et. al. 2000:103) define â€Å"advertising† as: a controlled, non-personal outward communication regardi ng a need-satisfying product, service or idea which an identifiable sponsor addresses to a specific target audience or target market for the purpose of informing and/or reminding it and/or persuading it to take the appropriate action. † SMS language is also affecting the language of advertising. In advertising, short sentences are preferred as they tend to be most appealing and they save space and money. Dr Peter J D’Adamo and Catherine Whitney market their book in this manner: the individualised diet solution to staying healthy, living longer and achieving your ideal weight EAT RIGHT 4 YOUR TYPE Theo and Cutter (1971:16) affirm the notion that the SMS language is appealing and evocative to the reader in this manner: Small words are gay. And they can catch large thoughts and hold them up to see, like rare stone in rings of gold, or joy in the eyes of a child. Some make you feel, as well as see: the cold deep dark of night, the hot salt sting of tears. Indeed, some authors use the SMS language to create book titles that would appeal to and draw the attention of readers. One such title of a book about HIV/AIDS written by Conlon et. al. (2004) reads: How 2 b Aids Aware It would be difficult for a person who is not conversant with the SMS language to read the above title of the book. The SMS language is therefore not sympathetic to the learning process of young and even adult learners of English as a second language since it does not observe grammatical and syntactic rules of English language usage. . LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Language researchers acknowledge that there is no consensus yet on the definition of language proficiency (Vecchio and Guerrero, 1995; Cummins, 1984; Oller and Damico, 1991). Cummins (1984) further states that some researchers indicate that language proficiency consist of 64 language components whereas Oller and Damico (1991) contend that â€Å"the nature and specification of the elements of language proficiency hav e not been determined† yet. Valdes and Figueroa (1994) as quoted by Vecchio and Guerrero (1995) explain language proficiency in this manner: †¦what it means to know a language goes beyond simplistic views of good pronunciation, â€Å"correct† grammar, and even mastery of rules of politeness. Knowing a language and knowing how to use a language involves mastery and control of a large number of interdependent components and elements that interact with one another and that are affected by the nature of the situation in which communication takes place. (p. 4) The above dilemma on the exact language proficiency definition notwithstanding, most language researchers including the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) (1992) agree that language 165 ISBN: 972-8939-02-7  © 2005 IADIS proficiency could be assessed in at least four modalities or language skills, namely, reading, listening, writing and speaking. CCSSO elaborates further on these modalities in this manner: 1. 2. 3. 4. Reading – the ability to comprehend and interpret text at the age and grade-appropriate level. Listening – the ability to understand the language of the teacher and instruction, comprehend and extract information, and follow the instructional discourse through which teachers provide information. Writing – the ability to produce written text with content and format fulfilling classroom assignments at the age and grade-appropriate level. Speaking – the ability to use oral language appropriately and effectively in learning activities (such as peer tutoring, collaborative learning activities, and question/answer sessions) within the classroom and in social interactions within the school. (1992, p 7) Language proficiency therefore entails the ability to listen, speak, read and write with comprehension observing grammatical, syntactical as well as semantic rules governing that language. These basic language skills cannot all be learnt effectively and efficiently when using the SMS language. For example if a learner encounters a problem of understanding the meaning of an SMS word which appears in an SMS text and the language of advertising, he will not find the meaning of the word anywhere as this language is not documented in general standard dictionaries of English language which are supposed to be sources of help. It is however acknowledged that some cellphone service providers like Vodacom have limited SMS glossaries available to their clients although not all cellphone users have access to those glossaries. 4. 1 Indicators of Language Proficiency Indicators of language proficiency are as many and varied as definitions of language proficiency are. Nonetheless, many language researchers would agree on the following indicators since they interface with the four basic modalities of language proficiency mentioned in the preceding paragraph: Skills to express oneself eloquently through writing and speaking. Skills to listen and read with comprehension. Skills and ability to use words appropriately in context. Ability to communicate in highly predictable common daily situations with previously learnt words. Ability to combine learnt elements of language creatively. Ability to initiate, sustain and close basic communication tasks. Ability to ask and answer questions in discrete sentences and strings of sentences on topics. Ability to converse fluently and in a clearly participative fashion. Ability to participate effectively in both formal and informal conversations, practical, social, professional and abstract topics. 5. How the SMS Language affects Language Proficiency of Learners Mostly, the SMS language affects two aspects of language proficiency stated above, namely, skills to express oneself eloquently through writing and skills and ability to use words appropriately in context. Learners have a tendency of using SMS language as if it were a standard language when they write tests, assignments and reports. They are therefore unable to differentiate the context and situation appropriate for the use of the SMS language. Here follow some examples from the scripts of learners registered for a Communication course at a tertiary institution: Script 1. Checkers wants 2 domestic workers for Saturdays and Sundays, those people must have two years experience†. Script 2. â€Å"if we get the money how shud it be used? 166 IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2005 Script 3. –Choosing a present for a frein can be dificult† â€Å"- Finaly, once you have bought the gift, you can a sk the Shop assistant to wrap it for you†. Script 4. â€Å"u must be at a high level of education, so that u know what to say. † In all the above examples, the learners have failed to determine the context, which is the school, that the SMS language cannot be used in a formal context as if it was a standard language. Another problem arising from the use of the SMS language is that learners do not only mix words and numbers like writing 2 instead of two but they also learn wrong spelling of words. For them shud, difficult, finaly and u are correct since they see and read these words everyday on their cellphones, television, billboards, books, newspapers and circulars from their teachers. 6. DICTIONARY USAGE Webster’s Third International Dictionary defines the word ‘dictionary’ in this manner: It is a reference book containing words which are lphabetically arranged along with information about their forms, pronunciations, functions, etymologies, meanings and syntactical and idiomatic uses. (1986:627). Dictionaries are used for different reasons and purposes. Supporting this view, Hartmann (1989) mentions that a study conducted in America by Barnhart (1962) in an attempt to determine the relative importance of various information categories in American desk dictionaries, came up with the following rank-scale indicating in order of importance the purpose for which American students used dictionaries for. The survey was regarded as probably the first large-scale user survey ever attempted. Barnhart distributed questionnaires to teachers at 99 colleges in 27 of the United States to gather data on how 56,000 students rated six types of information in ‘college dictionaries’ available at the time (circa 1955). The following rank-scale emerged: 1. Meaning, 2. Spelling, 3. Pronunciation, 4. Synonyms, 5. Usage notes, 6. Etymology. A dictionary as an authority and also an aid for foreign language learning should be able to unlock the problems learners experience when reading, writing, speaking and listening. Indeed, depending on the type and purpose of such dictionary, a good dictionary should be able to provide users with some of the above information. For example a dictionary for foreign language learning should be able to correct the spelling, syntactic structure, pronunciation and usage of words within a syntactic context. The general dictionary cannot help the SMS language user since the SMS language does not conform to the accepted spelling, grammatical and syntactic rules of the English language. For example, the word â€Å"before† is spelled â€Å"B4† in SMS language. English grammatical rules prescribe that a word should consist of consonants and vowels and not consonants and numerals. A linguistic dictionary is, above all, a means of ‘First Aid’ to fill the gaps that exist in our language competence as it constitutes a source for individual linguistic enrichment. Learners consult a dictionary with an aim of building up a vaster linguistic competence. Learners can improve their language proficiency by recognising the existence of dictionaries and using them effectively and efficiently. The absence of dictionaries of SMS language deprives learners and the general users of the SMS language, of the opportunity to look for meanings of words and to expand their SMS language vocabulary. 167 ISBN: 972-8939-02-7  © 2005 IADIS 7. THE SMS DICTIONARIES There are no SMS dictionaries yet, except for the glossary provided by some cellphone service providers such as Vodacom. A challenge for both educators and lexicographers is that SMS language is here to stay and we should deal with it. The question is HOW? Is it necessary to introduce SMS dictionaries and make them available to educators to help evaluate the learners’ competency in that language? Or should the educators use the available glossaries from Vodacom as authorities for language learning like any other dictionaries? A challenge to lexicographers is whether or not they should begin to record the SMS language in a form of dictionary. We should be mindful of the fact that one of the major tasks of lexicographers is to record language as it is used in everyday life. 8. CONCLUSION This paper has highlighted the impact of SMS language on the language proficiency of learners. The SMS language does not conform to grammatical or syntactic rules of the English language, nor does it conform to spelling rules. It has been indicated that the English language proficiency of the learners is negatively affected by learners’ exposure to the SMS language both through the print and the electronic media. Lexicographers record language as it is frequently used by the people and store it in the form of a corpus, and thereafter record it in dictionaries. This new paradigm is seen as a breakthrough in meta-lexicography from the traditional approach of describing what should be recorded in a dictionary. If lexicographers were to advance this position, they should be thinking of how the SMS language can interface with the spoken language since it is frequently used by the public in their daily conversations. Finally a challenge to lexicographers is whether they should begin to record this SMS language as it forms part of our daily language use and include it in their dictionaries or they should simply ignore it as an unofficial lingo. For educators, should they accept the SMS language as one of the languages that one can communicate with or should it be discouraged at all costs? REFERENCES Bosman, D. B; Van der Merwe, I. W. and Hiemstra, L. W. 2003. Pharos Bilingual Dictionary. Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries. Conlon, J; Clarke, L; Deane, M. and Attwell, A. 2004. How 2 b Aids Aware. Cape Town: Tabeisa. Council of Chief State School Officers. 1992. Recommendations for Improving the Assessment and Monitoring of Students with Limited English Proficiency. Alexandria, VA: Council of Chief State Officers, Weber Design. Cummins, J. 1984. Wanted: A theoretical framework for relating language proficiency to academic achievement among bilingual students. In C. Rivera (Ed. ), Language proficiency and academic achievement. Avon, England: Multilingual Matters Ltd. D’ Adamo, P. J. and Whitney, C. 2001. Eat Right 4 Your Type. Parktown: Random House South Africa (Pty) Ltd. Erasmus-Kritzinger, L. E. ; Bowler, A. and Goliath, D. 2000. Effective Communication. Pretoria: Afritech publishers. Hartmann, R. K. K. 1989. Sociology of the Dictionary User: Hypotheses and Empirical Studies. In Hausmann, F. J. et. al. (eds. ). 1989-1991. Dictionaries: 102-111. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 2002. Oxford: Macmillan Education. Oller, J. W. and Damico, J. S. 1991. Theoretical considerations in the assessment of LEP students. In E. Hamayan J. S. Damico (Eds. ), Limiting bias in the assessment of bilingual students. Austin: Pro-ed publications. Sinclair, J. 1995. Collins Coubuild English Dictionary. London: HarperCollins Publishers. Theo, E. G. and Cutter, M. A. 1971. Why can’t the English: An analogy of admirable and execrable English. Basterville: Hugh Keartland (Pty) Ltd. Valdes, G. and Figueroa, R. 1994. Bilingualism and testing A special case of bias. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Vecchio, A. D. and Guerrero, M. 1995. Handbook of Language Proficiency Tests. New Mexico: New Mexico Highlands University. Vodacom SMS Dictionary. Vodacom. Webster’s Third International Dictionary. 1986. Chicago: Meriam-Webster Inc. 168

Internet Persuasive Essay Example For Students

Internet Persuasive Essay The internet was created for the cold war, in the event that the U.S. were attacked, there would be no communication among the nations leaders, because traditional communication would be disrupted by a nuclear blast. Since that time, the internet survived only though commercialization, the original form of the internet was scrapped when the cold war ended. Now, with this medium in the hands of anyone who wants to pay for service, the Internet has exploded with controversial materials that some people think should be censored. When I started this project, I asked the question should the Internet be regulated and if so, how and why? First we’ll look at why the Internet needs regulation, Then how would our government go about doing so? There are several issues that are controversial with the internet. There is pornography, racism, and hate material floating around out there that is accessiable to children all too easily. For the purposes of this paper, I will only discuss the por nography issue, since talking about all of the censorship issues would take more than a short research paper to discuss. In early 1995, a research team at the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania released one of the most revealing studies into online pornography. The value of study titled â€Å"marketing Pornography on the information superhighway† is realized mainly due to its massive sample size. There are several issues about pornography on the internet that were highlighted by the study. The research team surveyed 917,410 â€Å"sexually explicit pictures, descriptions, short stories and film clips†. Of special intrest were usenet newsgroups, which are basically electronic forums. It was found that 83.5 percent of the digitized images stored on these newsgroups were pornographic pictures. This finding indicates that there clearly is a substantial amout of pornography on the net. However, this doesn’t answer the question, how easy is it to fi nd? In the same study, The student used a search engine called â€Å"Altavista†, typed in the keyword â€Å"sex†, and 616,156 matches were returned. Of the first 20 only 2 links were pornographic sites. Next, on the same search engine, the keyword â€Å"tits† was typed in and 69,920 links were returned. Of the first 20 of these links 17 were to pornographic sites. After looking into one of the sites listed, it was clear that is was used for exchanging child porn. This shows that it is likely that a minor would come across these sites because of their juvinile desire to look up dirty words. Just like an elementary school kid would look up â€Å"cuss† words in the dictionary. Porn is no longer just â€Å"Playboy† like photos. We have enterd an age where there is a high demand for â€Å"pedophilia† (nude photos of children), â€Å"hebephilia† (youths) and what’s called â€Å"paraphilia† (a grab bag of deviant material that includes images of bondage sadomasochism, urination, defication and sex act with barn yard animals). People who are against censorship of the internet often argue that it would make no difference because obscene material is avalible outside of the internet , even to children. On the internet, childer can be exposed to material even the most adventuresome kid would never get into with out it. That argument is no valid anymore. Bibliography:

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The god stealer free essay sample

The main characters in The God Stealer are Philip Latak and Sam Cristie. Philip, also known as Ip-pig, is an Ifugao who became a Christian and lived in Manila. By becoming a city dweller, Philip became less sentimental with his cultural identity, beliefs, and customs. His name was derived from the word Philippines. On the other hand, Sam Christie was an American who wanted to view the rice terraces of the Mountain Province (also known as the Cordilleras). He was also interested in purchasing an original figurine of an Ifugao god. His name was derived from Uncle Sam, a representation of the United States. Philip and Sam were co-workers. Summary Philip and Sam went to Baguio City. During a feast honoring Philip for his return, Philip and Sam were because of the unwillingness of the Ifugao people to sell any Ifugao statue. Philip plans to steal his grandfathers god in return for the salary raise given to him by Sam. We will write a custom essay sample on The god stealer or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page After finding out that his god was missing, Philips grandfather dies. Because of his grandfathers death, Philip decides not to return to Manila with Sam as a form of repentance. Philip transforms himself back into an Ifugao attired in traditional clothing who was in the process of replacing the old Ifugao idol by chiseling a new one. Interpretation Philips act of thievery represented the Filipinos giving up of their past tribal origins and traditions, only to be replaced by an unnatural culture brought by colonialism. At one time in history, colonialism brought to the Filipinos a state of confusion, troubled emotions, helplessness, torment, embarrassment and the inability to embrace the past.